PEACE & SECURITY, DEVELOPMENT AND HUMAN RIGHTS:
AN INTERACTIVE DIALOGUE & ROUND TABLE
Geneva, 19 March 2009 - International Council for Human Rights (ICHR), in association with
International Human Rights Association of American Minorities (IHRAAM) hosted an Interactive
Dialogue & Round Table at the Palais des Nations in Geneva. The event entitled Peace &
Security, Development and Human Rights as Pillars of the UN System ran in parallel to the 10th
session of the Human Rights Council and discussed the state of the three pillars since the
inception of the United Nations and their relevance to the modern world.
The comprehensive and distinguished list of speakers included Barrister A. Majid Tramboo
Chairman of ICHR and IHRAAM's permanent representative to the UN Geneva, Prof. Alfred de
Zayas Public and International Law professor at the Geneva School of Diplomacy &
International Relations, Prof. Krishna Ahoojapatel UN Representative Women's Int. League for
Peace and Freedom (WILPF), Prof. Joseph Wronka, professor of Social Work, Springﬁeld
College, Massachusetts and author of Human Rights and Social Justice, Ms. Victoria Schoﬁeld,
South Asia Analyst & Distinguished Academic, Mr. Shah Ghulam Qadir, the Chairman Kashmir
Institute of International Relations, Princess Michelene Makou Djouma, the International Co-
ordinator and UN representative for OrganisationCamerounaise de Promotion de la
Coopération Economique Internationale
(OCAPROCE) and Mr. Ronald Barnes Chair of Indigenous Peoples and Nations Coalition (IPNC).
Barrister A. Majid Tramboo opened the interactive dialogue and round table by outlining the
changing nature of the three pillars of the UN. He noted that the deﬁnition of peace & security
has changed since the inception of the UN and, as such, new ways of tackling "old" problems
have been sought. The concept of Human Rights has taken root and has now entered the daily
lexicon used by governments, NGOs and international organisations around the world. The
signiﬁcance of which is embodied by the three sessions of the Human Rights Council that take
place each year and the universal periodic review in which the human rights record nations
are reviewed and then discussed by all of the members of the HRC. However, despite the
signiﬁcance of global
human rights and the increasing amount of importance that the UN places on these rights
there is still a long way to go before they are afforded to many of the people in the world.
Barrister A. Majid Tramboo expressed serious concern over the continuous gross human
rights violations by India in the Indian Held Kashmir. Very recently the issue of land mines has
come to surface which allegedly had been laid down by the Indian military and paramilitary
forces at the various parts of Kashmir.
There is the issue of nameless and mass graves which has been also reported by the United
Nations working group on enforced and involuntary disappearances as well as an urgency
resolution passed by the European Parliament, unfortunately no independent and impartial
investigation has been conducted by the government of India on this issue. Arrests and
detentions take place as a matter of routine in Indian Held Kashmir. Hundreds of political and
human rights activists are being detained without any charge or trial including Saleem Nanaji
and Farooq A. Dar of Jammu Kashmir Liberation Front, Shabir Ahmad Shah of Jammu Kashmir
Democratic Freedom Party and Masrat Alam of Jammu
& Kashmir Muslim League.
Prof. Alfred de Zayas began by stating that the concept of human rights is not the ﬂavor of the
month. It is the most noble commitment of men and women of good will, who believe in peace
and development and who want to make this a reality not just for elites but for all human
beings in all regions of the world.
The problem with the United Nations -- as with every human institution -- is that member States
work for their perceived interests, not for human rights or human dignity. Thus it is the task of
the Ofﬁce of the High Commissioner for Human Rights to persuade States that it is in their own
interest to play by the rules. The principle of equality and non-selectivity is crucial for the
credibility and good functioning of the system.
There are many States who apply human rights -- or for that matter international law -- à la
carte. Today they invoke human rights with regard to a particular country or region, they point
ﬁngers, they engage in naming and shaming. Tomorrow they keep quiet when the violations
occur in their own territory or in the territory of an allied or friendly State. Here again it is the
task of the Ofﬁce of the High Commissioner and of moral authorities throughout the world to
insist in the necessity of honesty and consistency in the application of human rights norms.
This requires patience and continuing education. In this context UNESCO has an eminent
challenge to fulﬁll. Most importantly, the human right to peace must be vindicated. Peace is
the condition for the enjoyment of all civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights. And
peace is not just the absence of war -- it is the
presence of all those elements that make peace possible -- disarmament, mutual respect,
equality and social justice. The Spanish Association for the Advancement of International
Human Rights Law (AEDIDH) has adopted an important document: The Luarca Declaration on
the Human Right to Peace. This declaration was formally submitted to the Human Rights
Council on 15 March 2007 and has been discussed worldwide in international seminars and
congresses. It is to be hoped that it shall be adopted by the Human Rights Council in 2010. As
of today 164 non-governmental organization endorse this initiative. The International Labour
Ofﬁce has given us a motto that is worth reﬂecting on -- si vis pacem, cole justitiam. If you want
peace, cultivate justice. Indeed, there can be no peace in the world when social injustice
prevails in so many countries, when millions of persons suffer
hunger and extreme poverty. We must change our priorities and ensure the implementation of
the millennium development goals.
Prof. Krishna Ahoojapatel began by expressing her agreement with the comments that
Barrister Tramboo has made about the human rights situation in Kashmir and then discussed
development and industrialisation. The distinguished professor noted that all development
processes had been intervened in by western nations and that this had resulted in many
problems for the least developed nations of the world. Since 1994 the USA, the world's only
superpower, has been shying away from multilateralism and towards unilateral trade
agreements. The entire UN system of the World Bank, the World Trade Organisation and the
International Monetary Fund was allowing
capital ﬂight from the poorest nations of the world to the richest and this is part of the reason
for the current global economic crises. She noted that if we are to achieve peace in the world
then there needs to be less hypocrisy within the largest International Organisations of the
Prof. Joseph Wronka began by stating that to achieve global peace we ﬁrst need to eradicate
global poverty. The global disparity of incomes is a leading factor in global turmoil. Prof.
Wronka implored civil society to demand that the governments of the world tackle poverty and
extreme poverty by meeting their legal commitments under the Convention to Eradicate
Extreme Poverty as well as several other international agreements to that end. He noted that
the human rights mechanisms and treaties are pillars of a globally just world and noted that the
right to peace should be paramount on the agenda of the Human Rights Council.
Ms. Victoria Schoﬁeld started by outlining some of the "new" security threats that the World is
facing. These are the rich/poor divide, international crime, terrorism, environmental concerns
and migrations. Examining them in the context of Jammu & Kashmir she noted that the people
of Jammu and Kashmir had been unable to attain their human right to peace. Ms. Schoﬁeld
that the valley of Jammu and Kashmir is a victim of four of the above ﬁve points, excluding the
threat of international crime. The people of Jammu and Kashmir have been suffering from
economic deprivation and this has led to frustration. She discussed the ﬁrst ever economic
survey of Kashmir that was carried out by the Indian sponsored government if Indian Held
Jammu and Kashmir in 2007. The ﬁndings of the report were glaring illustrations of the growing
Firstly, Jammu and Kashmir lags behind in development aspects including per capita income,
healthcare, communications and literacy. The per capita income of the state is only two thirds
of the national average. On communications the story is little different. On average there is
one post ofﬁce to serve an area of 60sq km which is three times greater than the rest of the
country. On the social infrastructure side the outlook is even more bleak. In 2006 there was on
average one medical institution servicing 3000 people, 71% of homes do not receive drinking
water, the literacy rate is 55% as opposed 64% in the rest of India. Such disparities have the
potential to threaten political security and without peace then security is always under threat
and this is made worse by social deprivation.
The second threat is terrorism. This can be state terror and unlawful killings of civilians the
greatest example of this being the mass graves that have been discovered in the state.
Unlawful killings of civilians and the use of illegal force has not brought peace and security but
has exacerbated it. For instance the recent terror attacks in Mumbai where immediately
blamed on the Kashmiris and this has had a negative effect on the peace process. Terrorism is
a threat to peace and security in Kashmir because it sets back dialogue.
Thirdly, environmental concerns. Kashmir is one of the most beautiful places on the world and
if the environment is destroyed then peoples incomes will suffer. The damage that occurred in
Kargil in 1999 caused lots of damage to the weavers of the region and disrupted an entire way
of life. Also, on the Sichuan glacier the high levels of military activity is leading to a great deal
pollution which could have a serious affect on the water supplies for many of the people of
Finally there is the issue of migration. The compulsion of so many of the Kashmiris of the valley
to migrate due to political repression has effectively led to them having the right to live in
their homeland taken away from them.
These are ways in which the four modern threats to world peace can be related to Jammu and
Kashmir and a speedy resolution of the conﬂict would go a long way to neutralizing them.
Mr. Shah Ghulam Qadir began by discussing the universal declaration of human rights. The
problem, he said, lay not in the document itself but in the implementation of that document. If
we look at the Peace & Security problems all over the world we have to ask why there is such a
disparity between Peace & Security in the developed world and the developing world. He
pointed out that in chastising developing countries the countries of the developed world
made little attempt to discuss the human rights record of countries with which they shared
political and economic interests and this has a direct effect on the discussion of human rights
abuses in Kashmir.
Princess Michelene Makou Djouma highlighted the need for a socio-economic approach to
improving human rights of marginalised communities, particularly women and children,
emphasising the role of education and the need for skills based training. She argued that this
approach was crucial for breaking the cycle of extreme poverty in Africa and easing its
dependance on aid.
Mr. Ronald Barnes discussed how in the name of peace and security the previous US
administration fostered a doctrine of pre-emptive defense and this has had a negative effect
on Peace and Security across the globe. He went on to outline the difference between
terrorists and "freedom ﬁghters" and pointed out that even on his 90th birthday Nelson
Mandela was still on the US terror list.
He then discussed how the realisation of the right to self-determination of people all-over the
world is critical to the peace and security of the world. Mr. Barnes stated his belief that if the
HRC could achieve the goals set out in its mandate then we would be closer to solving many of
the problems of peace & security, development and human rights across the globe.
Barrister Tramboo then opened the ﬂoor for the interactive dialogue where questions were
put to the panel before the interactive dialogue and round table was adjourned.